As a traditional medicine, many ayurveda products have not been tested in rigorous scientific studies and clinical trials. In India, research in ayurveda is largely undertaken by the statutory body of the Central Government, the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS), through a national network of research institutes. A systematic review of ayurveda treatments for rheumatoid arthritis concluded that there was insufficient evidence, as most of the trials were not done properly, and the one high-quality trial showed no benefits. A review of ayurveda and cardiovascular disease concluded that while the herbal evidence is not yet convincing, the spices are appropriate, some herbs are promising, and yoga is also a promising complementary treatment.

Some ayurvedic products, mainly herbs used for phytotherapy, have been tested with promising results. Turmeric and its derivative curcumin appears to have beneficial properties.Tinspora cordifolia has been tested. Among the medhya rasayanas (intellect rejuvenation), two varieties of Salvia have been tested in small trials; one trial provided evidence that Salvia lavandulifolia (Spanish sage) may improve word recall in young adults and another provided evidence that Salvia officinalis (Common sage) may improve symptoms in Alzheimer’s patients. In some cases, ayurvedic medicine may provide clues to therapeutic compounds. For example, derivatives of snake venom have various therapeutic properties.Many plants used as rasayana (rejuvenation) medications are potent antioxidants. Neem appears to have beneficial pharmacological properties.

Mitra & Rangesh (2003) hold that cardamom and cinnamon stimulate digestive enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules in the human body. Research suggests that T. arjuna is useful in alleviating the of angina pectoris and in treating heart failure and coronary artery disease. T. arjuna may also be useful in treating hypercholesterolemia.
Richard Dawkins has a critique of the use of ayurveda in the West.